Friday, July 17, 2020

Marketing Planning

Marketing Planning Marketing Planning. TESCO COMPANY SWOT ANALYSIS. Home›Marketing Posts›Marketing Planning. TESCO COMPANY SWOT ANALYSIS. Marketing PostsTesco is a U.K based public company and is the third largest grocery retailer in the world. This is according to a report by potter and mark (2011). The report indicates that the company was founded way back in 1919in east London but its first outlet was not opened until 1929. The founder of Tesco Company happens to be Cohen, who purchased a shipment of tea from T.E stock well. Thus the company name “Tesco”, was formed from the two initials combined with the first two letters of the founders surname.The headquarters of the company are based in Cheshunt, U.K and the key people in the company are David Reid, who acts as the company’s chairman and Philip clerk, who is the chief executive officer of the company. In addition, according to the company’s website (, the company had around 472,000 employees as at 2010 which represents a 3 0% market share in the grocery retail business in the United Kingdom. In addition, it is the second largest in terms of profits, both gross and net profit after wal-mart. Its revenues in the financial year 2010/2011 stood at 60.93 billion pounds and the net income at 2.67billion pounds.Apart from the United Kingdom, the company also has got stores in fourteen countries across Asia, Europe and North America. Though Tesco Company was originally U.K focused retailer, it has with time diversified its operations geographically and into areas such as retailing of books, clothing, electronics, furniture, petrol and software. In summary, the company now can be said to offer financial, telecom and internet services apart from food retailing.The success that has been witnessed by the company is not only as a result of its large market share and popularity in the in the grocery retailing, but also as a result of its corporate strategy. As stated by Citigroup retail analyst David McCarthy, Tesc o has devised a strategy to appeal to all segments of the market. The corporate strategies that the company has employed to achieve this is the use of its own brand products, for instance low-priced products such as food, beverages, clothing, mobile and financial services. Though the products are low-priced, the company has been careful to maintain the quality of its products, thus increasing its customer loyalty hence retention.The other corporate strategy that the company employs is the innovative use of technology which it uses as an expansion strategy. Through this strategy, the company has been able to widen its market share through online purchasing and supplies both locally and internationally. The company is also involved in intensive product promotion and advertizing so as to gain competitive advantage over its competitor. This way, it has been able to create awareness to people of their new and existing products thus promoting their sale. These corporate strategies are one of the contributors that have enabled the company to increase its revenue and net income.In addition, according to the “PDF of the 2006 Giving List” the company is also very much involved in the corporate social responsibility. As the file indicates, the company has made a commitment to social responsibility in a number of ways.   One of its major contributions to corporate social responsibility is its contribution to charities, local communities and organizations. For instance, a report in the file indicates that in 2006, it made contributions amounting to 1.87% of its pre-tax profit to charities, local communities and organizations. In addition, it is said to have led the debate on corporate social responsibility thus encouraging other businesses to make contributions to the society. The other area it has manifested its corporate social responsibility is in the establishment of “Computers for schools scheme” in 1992 for schools and hospitals thus promoting technological k nowledge. Finally, the company sponsors “The Tesco cup”, a football competition for young players throughout the United Kingdom. This was as from 2005/2006 football season.A marketing oriented company is one that organizes its activities, products and services around the wants and needs of its customers (Times 100, 1995). Essentially, the company this kind of a company is characterized by an intensified market research so as to acquire relevant and detailed information about tastes and preference of the customers and their lifestyle so as to come up with products and services that best suits them. Moreover, a market oriented organization has got its products and services ranges carefully designed to fit customer preferences. They are organized in a manner that they will appeal to the customer. In addition, it views the needs of customers and consumers as being important as it develops the markets products to meet those demands.Therefore, a marketing oriented organization can be identified by its functions and the activities it conducts in relation to those functions. For instance as indicted in Times 100, in identifying customer needs and wants a company that is market oriented will engage in marketing research to gather enough information about the customer. It will also develop products to meet the consumer needs and wants through research and development production. In deciding the value of the products to customer, the sales and monitoring department will engage in pricing that is affordable by the consumers. In order to make the product available to consumers at the right time and place, it will adopt reliable and efficient channels of distribution. And finally in order to inform the customers of the existence of the product and persuade them to buy it, the organization will engage in intensive advertising and promotion. All these functions and activities characterize an organization that is marketing oriented.On the contrary, a product oriented organ ization has its primary focus on the skills, knowledge and systems that support that product. Thus, the major focus of a product oriented company is on the quality, safety and investment in technology. It also focuses on product differentiation by making the features of the products distinct from those of the other organizations in the same industry.A strategy led organization on the other hand, engages in long term planning of actions designed to achieve a particular goal and objective.   These strategies are meant to strengthen the performance an enterprise for instance in terms of its profitability. An organization of this kind develops strategies that state how business should be conducted to achieve the desired goals and objectives. It also engages itself in the review of the strategies developed through SWOT analysis.From the above explanations, Tesco Company can be said to be a market led company because its primary focus is on its customer needs and wants and also it is care ful to expand its market share through its corporate strategies such as advertizing, product and services promotion, price reduction with retained or improved quality. The geographical expansion of its outlets to other Asian and European countries is an indication that the company is aiming at widening its market share thus being marketing oriented.TESCO COMPANY SWOT ANALYSISAccording to the ivory (2005), the SWOT analysis is among the oldest and most comprehensive method of analyzing the environmental dynamics of an organization. It deals with both the internal and external environment of an organization, with strengths and weaknesses being in the internal environment of the organization and opportunities and threats in the external environment of an organization.In relation to Tesco Company, its strengths are manifested in various dimensions. As indicated in the Daily Mail (2010), Tesco is ranked third largest grocery Retail Company in the world operating over 4,333 s tores primarily within USA, Asia and Europe. In addition, the report indicates that the company has shown a strong financial performance over the years. This is as evidenced by its 54 billion pounds turnover company recording. The company also focuses on product affordability to its customer s without compromising on the quality thus maintaining good public image and enhancing customer loyalty. Moreover, it has proven customer retention strategy with the help of its loyalty scheme known as ‘Tesco club card’ through the information from the loyalty scheme which is then used for effective direct marketing.When it comes to weaknesses, the company has not been able to perform well over the last few years compared to its competitors. For instance, a number of products were recalled by Tesco in 2009. This as resulted to a financial loss as well as damage to its brand name (Mintel, 2009). The other area of weakness that the company has portrayed is lack of geographical diversification. This is because most of the key operations of the company are concentrated in the U.K thus losing to their competitors.However, despite the weaknesses that the company has, the market still presents an opportunity for the company to excel in business.   For instance, as noted by Mintel, commercial network portfolio of the Tesco Company is on the rise. The study indicates that the company has opened over 620 stores as from 2009 of which 435 were international. This geographical diversification provides the company an opportunity to improvising its economy of scale. Moreover, given the rapidly growing popularity of the Tesco Company, there is an opportunity for the company to attract new customers and reduce the overall cost resulting to more profits. Also the company’s focus on global expansion by its entry to Indian market will strengthen its global market position. Finally, an increase in spending on food retail market is another opportunity presented to the company, despite dec reased purchasing power on the part of the consumer as having enough food to eat is a priority.Equally important are the threats that the company is exposed to. Abeysinghe T. (2010) points out that the commencement of global financial crisis in the U.K’s economy can have a detrimental impact on Tesco’s financial standing. This is due to the company’s concentration of its operations in the U.K. The other threat is the decrease in income and the rise in unemployment. This situation has resulted to lack of purchasing power by the consumers thus affecting their buying behavior. This has adversely impacted the company sales especially of the non-food products. Finally, though the Tesco Company has been leading in the sector of grocery retailing for over 15 years, as study indicates, it is faced with intense competition from its competitors who are gaining in the market share. This stiff competition in the U.K grocery market acts as a threat to Tesco Company.PESTLE ANALYSThis is a m ethod used to scan the external environment of a business. It includes the political, economic, social, technological, legal and the environmental factors that affect an organization (McDonald, 2002). In reference to Tesco Company, various issues have come up in relation to PESTLE analysis.In relation to political environment, the company has been able to achieve greatly. For instance, according to a report by Strait Times (2010), china’s accession to the WTO has promised a free flow of foreign trades by removing all barriers encouraging Western companies, including Tesco. In addition, as the report indicates, the agreement signed by the company in 2009 to set up a premeditated series of joint ventures for the development of shopping malls in china is another great milestone. The promotion of free trading blocs by governments has provided Tesco with a platform to expand its retail network across Eastern European countries.The economic factors are a matter of concern for Tesco Comp any. This is because they impact directly on the buying behavior of customers. Though the U.K economy was officially declared under recession in 2008, the government’s intervention through substantial reduction in interest rates helped reduce unemployment thus increasing the spending power of customers. In relation to social environment, Tesco company has accommodated change in the lifestyle of people for instance, their demand for organic foods thus retaining their customers. On technology, the company is involved in online grocery retailing and also mobile technology is being embraced as a channel for distribution where customers can buy directly from their mobile phones.BARRIERS TO PLANNINGAccording to McDonald (2002), successful planning can be hindered by a number of factors which include; objective confusion, isolation of marketing function, organizational barriers, change in management and ethical issues. When an organization’s management team is not clear when coming up with the objectives of the organization, then it may fail to take the appropriate actions to wards the achievement of the set objectives. This is because some objectives may not be well understood thus causing confusion and disagreement when it comes to executing them.Isolation of marketing function may act as a barrier to planning in that it promotes lack of commitment to the planning process either as a result of fear of failure or lack of time to work through the required planning process. Organizational barriers and culture may also hinder effective planning. For instance, the culture of relying too much on the planning department by the management to implement the plans may act as a barrier. This is because the planning department is only supposed to conduct research, build models and project probable results. Their results are only aids to planning and formulation of the plans should be the manager’s responsibility. Change in management may act as a barrier to planning as th e new management, may not be willing to continue with the policies that were adopted by the previous management in planning. This may also lead to delay in planning or ineffectiveness to planning. The ethical issue that may affect planning is reliance on inferior information to plan. Facts that are out of date, insufficient or of poor quality may hinder the process of planning. However, barriers to planning may be overcome by use of effective communication, acquiring quality and reliable information and soliciting the involvement of others in the planning process (Dibbs, Bright Cheney, 2001).MARKETING PLANA marketing plan is a detailed written document that describes the strategies and steps needed to achieve a specific company’s marketing objectives (McDonald, 2002). In every business, a marketing plan is of great importance due to a number of reasons. To begin with, marketing plan is used as an evaluation tool by the management. As an evaluation tool, it checks whether the stra tegies that have been put into record are being implemented thus taking corrective measures. In addition, it is used as a tool to determine or measure the performance of a certain product or service thus providing insight of what a given product or service requires in order to compete fairly in the market. Moreover, as Born Bright indicates (1997), a marketing plan acts as a guide for the management to revise its marketing strategies.In marketing, after the product has come to the end of its cycle, a company may want to engage in the development of a new product and release it in the market. However, this new product development process involves various strategies before it becomes fully established in the market. After a company has developed a new product through intensive research of the customer needs and wants and government rules and regulation, the company has to do pilot testing of the product. This involves releasing a small quantity to the market and then evaluating how th e intended segment is responding to the product. After the pilot testing, company will work on the feedback so that it can determine where it can improve on the products to suit the market segment.The 7ps represent a marketing mix which is the combination of marketing activities that an organization engages in so as to best meet the needs of its targeted market. These include product, price, place, promotion, physical layout, provision of customer service and processes (Bornstein, D. 2004). In production part of the activities, an organization should ensure that the products fully suits the segment for which it is intended and that it is safe for consumption. It can also adopt differentiation strategies to make the product unique from that of the competitors and also appealing to customers. In the pricing activity, it is important for a company to offer prices that are affordable to their customers without compromising on the quality of the product. This way, the company will be abl e to retain customer loyalty. The place refers to the location where a company is situated. Sometimes customers may deal with the company directly by going to the actual place of production and therefore it is important for a company to create a good working environment. The levels of hygiene should be high to create a good impression to the customers.The physical layout of a company is also of importance and therefore a high level of presentation is expected. When it comes to the provision of customer service, customers are likely to be loyal to organizations that serve them well. Therefore a company should be above reproach when it comes to customer service. Finally, the processes such as those for handling customer complaints, indentifying customer needs and requirements and for handling orders should be streamlined to avoid customer dissatisfaction.In marketing, customer segmentation is inform of demographic segmentation, that is, in terms of age, gender and sex, social segmenta tion which encompasses the social class, lifestyle, income and education, geographical segmentation   in terms of region, country, city or even climate, psychological and behavioral segmentation such as customer’s loyalty, product preference , interests, personality and price perception (Dashboard, 2009).MARKETING ETHICSAccording to the American Marketing Association statement of ethics (2004), marketing ethics is an area of applied ethics which deals with the moral principles behind the operation and regulation of marketing. There are different ethical issues that can influence marketing planning. These include issues like development of competitive stance, different perceptions of ethics across nations, ethical trade-off and management cultures. In addition, ethics of marketing mix such as the management of the individual elements of the marketing mix is another factor that can influence marketing planning. Consumer ethics is another ethical issue that can influence marketing pl anning.   An organization has to plan in a way that it avoids unethical issues such as warranty deception, misredemption of vouchers, returns of merchandise, false insurance claims, recording of music and videos and software copying.According to Cheney (in progress), organizations respond to ethical issues by first and foremost familiarizing themselves and the staff to these issues. Then they develop policies that are in line with business ethics for instance by avoiding misrepresentation, upholding fair competition and also engaging in advertizing and product promotion without defaming their competitors. As stated above, some of the examples of consumer ethics, according to Conrad (1993a), include issues like music and video recordings, false insurance claims, misredemption of vouchers and returns of merchandise. According to Conrad (2003b), these consumer ethical issues have great impact in marketing planning as the organizations have to set their objectives in a manner that they will be aimed at correcting these issues incase they occur. They have also to develop strategies to deal with these issues which may turn out to be expensive and time consuming.In conclusion, marketing is an important segment in any organization as it is through marketing and marketing planning that an organization gets to achieve its main objective, which is profit maximization.   However, for this planning to be a success, there is need to embrace teamwork and also engage in intensive research of the trends in the market.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender Issues Of Advertising An Regulation Synthesis Of...

Florida International University†¨ â€Å"Gender issues in advertising--an oversight synthesis of research: 1970-2002† By: Lori D. Wolin Source: Journal of Advertising Research. 43.1 (Mar. 2003): p111. Document Type: Article Date of publication: 26 Feb. 2015.†¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨ Victoria Perez†¨ SYG 2000- Introduction To Sociology (U03)†¨ April 3rd, 2015†¨ Professor Oueslati-Porter †¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Summary of Article†¨ In the article â€Å"Gender issues in advertising- an oversight synthesis of research†, Professor Lori D. Wolin, a graduate of Florida Atlantic University and professor at Lynn University, gives insight on the gender roles and stigmas that are assigned to society, knowing first hand from advertising and being a test subject to the gender roles that gender roles play a key role in marketing and that the assignment can be harmful and are necessary to analyze to keep from creating a further stigma in society. Wolin explains that the difference in advertisement towards males and advertisement towards females are vastly varying and play an importa nt part in the way advertisement furthers the instillment of gender roles. †¨ Gender is used every day as a marketing technique in order to sell products because it can be applied to a vast majority of people, can be identified by anybody, and it is easy to tell what is and is not a best seller according to reactions and reviews from society. In order to get an accurate amount of research, theShow MoreRelatedMarketing Report for LOreal6541 Words   |  27 Pagesproducts, active cosmetics. They mainly focus on skin care, make-up, hair care and fragrance. LOreal includes some important brands such as Lancà ´me Paris, Garnier, Mabelline, Softsheen Carson, Matrix, and Biotherm. LOreal invests heavily into its research and development which gives them competitive advantage over its competitors. 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Apple External and Internal Analysis Free Essays

Introduction Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and manufactures consumer electronics and computer software products. Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 in the heart of Silicon Valley, and incorporated January 3, 1977. We will write a custom essay sample on Apple External and Internal Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Apple Inc. used to be called Apple Computers Inc. , but dropped the word computer because it wanted to expend its products beyond just computers. Steve Jobs was a co-founder and the CEO before. Today, Apple operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. SWOT: Apple Inc. , the manufacturers of Macs, iPods, iPhones, iPads and professional software, has achieved great success since it began in 1977. It’s difficult to predict what will happen to this company in the future, but a SWOT analysis (which measures the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to a business) can help to understand the company’s current position and where it may go in the future. Strengths Apple’s strengths are being a design innovator that is ahead of the trends, creating ergonomic electronics that fit people’s lives. Specifically, Apple has been able to invest significantly in research and development, having invested $80 million in the quarter ending in June 2010. Weaknesses Apple acknowledges that its profitability is dependent on the global economy. Economic downturns can have a significant negative effect on the company, and fluctuations in foreign currencies make profit predictions in foreign markets uncertain. Opportunities Apple is expected to introduce a new mobile advertising platform for the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. The introduction of this advertising platform represents an opportunity for new revenue sources. Threats Apple is involved in several legal actions, including lawsuits alleging patent infringement and antitrust violations. Many of the suits are from smaller companies, but notable plaintiffs include Nokia. These lawsuits present a threat because of the possibility of unfavorable judgments and the ongoing costs associated with legal defenses. How to cite Apple External and Internal Analysis, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Transformation of Simon Armitage poem Untitled Essay Example For Students

Transformation of Simon Armitage poem Untitled Essay I am very bothered when I think of the bad things that I have done, especially when I was thirteen and at Moorly High School. It was one particular science lesson after registration. It all started off on a busy and hectic morning when I was preparing myself to go to school. Oh I gotta get ma bag, wheres ma bag? Need it for skool, socks wheres ma socks? I hate mornings. Bloomin useless. Simon come on love, you will be late for school. God I wish shed give me a rest. Always on my back, gor drivin me round the twist. Wheres ma socks cant find em, useless. We will write a custom essay on Transformation of Simon Armitage poem Untitled specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Hurry Simon the bus is here, your going to miss it darling. Im not a flamin kid anymore. I am thirteen and she still treats me like a baby, Im grown up now when will she gimme a chance? Cos I can catch the bus by ma sen these days! I wish shed jus leave me alone. Ok bye love, have a nice day at school, stay out of trouble and watch your dinner money. Ill be home when you get in. Bye. Watever, like leave me alone! Man she jus dunt kno wen to giv up and I kno how to look after my dinner money. I hav learnt summit in my time at skool! Looking back now I can see how arrogant and horrible I was towards my mother. I really didnt appreciate at the time the amount she cared and did for me. She was just looking out for my best interests and trying to give me the best start in life that she possibly could. All I could do was insult her with very degrading and nasty unappreciative comments that she just did not deserve. I can see this now and how it has reflected in my life because I know for a fact I would not be in the same position today if my mum acted in any other way earlier in my life. Its bloomin freezing out ere, ma face is numb and my hands feel as cold as icicles I wish that stupid bus wud hurry up. Anymore of this and I wont be here much longer. Alright Simon didnt see you there. How long hav you been waiting? Peace and quite please! I hav jus woke up my eyes are shining, ears are buzzin Im flamin freezin and I dont want a loser like Colin speaking to me. Why isnt this stupid bus cumin? Im gunna go berserk. Are you ok Simon lad? You look terrible. I look terrible? Really? Its probably because I am freezin and I hav jus woken up. Any way its not as if you are the best lookin geezer in the World so shut it! Oh Thank God. Finally the bus is here. Its about time. At a 10 past bloomin 8, its ten minutes late. I am cold, tired, I wish I wa still in bed, comfortable, warm and snug. Wow better put my arm out or the stupid bus wont stop, silly idiot cant he see me? 45p lad? Have you brought your half fare pass? Cos Im gunna have to charge you full fare if you aint brought it. 90p then. In future lad bring ure pass cos you is gettin grown up and need a pass. I dont believe this, wat a looser! Can my day get any worse? What have I done to deserve this? First my Mums been bugging me, then this fat ugly plod on the bus asking for my half fare pass! Someone help! Lets jus hope the resta ma day is buzzin after this. I hope Jessica is in today cos that will certainly cheer me up. Hi Simon, youre looking awfully fine this morning, your hair is looking really nice, what have you done today that is different? Have you used a different gel or summat cos it looks really nice. You smell great too! Huh you dont have to tell me that ladies, I already know! I just wish Jessica thought the same about me, she is so nice its the best thing about skool, certainly betta than maths, English and geography . I would go out with her so bad. I can see it now-her by my side it wud be ace. That would be a perfect day. Heh, if only, keep dreaming boy. Yes, Jessica Armitage, my first true love. The hours I must have spent thinking of her and dreaming that we were together. I might have got some good grades in my exams if I had paid more attention to revising and doing my work. It seems silly now though but I really couldnt stop thinking about her and I would have done anything to be with her. Its the only real reason I went to school to see that gorgeous body and beautifully crafted face. .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f , .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .postImageUrl , .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f , .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f:hover , .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f:visited , .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f:active { border:0!important; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f:active , .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u199403287abc103032bfc8606f880c6f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Judith Beveridge s Poetry EssayShe was some girl; only problem was that just about every other boy in the school had a liking for her too. Comical really! About time. Finally at school I thought we would never get here, the driver was going as slow as a snail. Dont they teach them how to put their foot down these days? It took twenty minutes to do a five minute bus ride. He must hav been goin about 20mph and thats even without fat Harry on the bus! Sometimes I would rather walk; it would probably be faster and I wouldnt hav to spend 90p to get here! Such a bad mornin I really hope the afternoon beats this. Crikey, better hurry up, the bell has gone. Need to get to tutor group, what a joy! Rodger Hilton? Yes Sir Jane Johnson Yes Sir Simon Armitage? Wheres Simon? Has anyone seen him? How stupid are teachers? Does he need some glasses? Why cant he see me? Im right in the middle of the class sat with Tom Redwood behind Jason and Carla and in front of Paul and Rodger. Its so simple. I wish teachers could be scrapped for robots. There well stupid, they cant call em selves humans, they are like aliens or summat. Oh there you are. Speak up in future please Simon Mr Smith, my form tutor was a strange and peculiar man. He never seemed to get any respect from the pupils. I had him for Geography and he had no control of the lessons. We never did any work as he was too bothered about getting everyone quiet. At the time that was good because I didnt too much like working but now it just seemed like a complete waste of time. Im surprised that he never got sacked, he was hopeless, smelt horrible and his breath smelt like something most commonly associated with a toilet. He was one of those teachers that all pupils have nightmares about. Oh no, Science with Mrs Carlton. I really hate the subject and I jus cant stand the teacher she is so nasty, evil and she always picks on me its reight harsh. Ive skived a couple of times to avoid it but I cant today cos we av got an experiment. The only good thing about this lesson is that Jessica is in it too so I get to see her for a full hour. Woow, Im late, better hurry up. Simon you are five minutes late! You knew that we had an important experiment today. Now take your coat off, put your lab jacket and goggles on and start the experiment with Lee. Come on, hurry up Simon. Great Ive wanted to do this lesson for ages. We get to use the Bunsen burners and some chemicals, great fun. The only bad thing is that I av to work with Lee. He is such a loser and Jessica will not be impressed cos Im working with him and he will cramp my style. She is working with Laura and they are opposite to us so jus play it cool and dont do anything dumb. Come on Simon lets get the stuff set up so we can start and get some cool results. I really want to show Mrs Carlton that my prediction was right; she might give me a green slip then. That will make forty for the year. My Mum will be so impressed. Hes so clever and annoying as he is always the first to have his hand up in class and always gets his homework in on time. I dont know how he does it. He is a complete Mummys boy. I bet she still baths him too. OK Simon I will set it all up. Just come over in two minutes to can turn on the Bunsen and we can then get started. See wat I mean, he is far too keen for my liking. He should be cool like me and play it easy. Then you might get a girl like Jessica. Who cares bout work when you hav good lookin birds like her to chase around. .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 , .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .postImageUrl , .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 , .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157:hover , .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157:visited , .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157:active { border:0!important; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157:active , .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157 .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5c515a3ad406b665e511890f5abd2157:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Poems from other cultures and Traditions: Blessing by Imtiaz Dharker EssayWoo, there she is looking awfully fine. I was too lazy and laid back at school. I should have done more work instead of trying to stare up all the girls. I would have got some respectable exam results if I had put some more work in and gone to University to make a real go of my life. At the time I was more interested in drinking cans of White Lightening cider at the bus stop at the top of Rowley Lane with Tom and Dave rather than doing my Maths homework on multiple equations and long divisions. I suppose thats how it is when youre that age though. Hey Simon its all set up and ready to go. Lets start the experiment. I wonder how I could really impress her and make her like me? I jus wish I had the answer. How do lads like Jack and Tim get to spend so much time with her? Its not as if they are cool like me, they dont even wear designer clothes they r right binners. Simon are you coming? I really want her. Wat shall I do? Think, think! There must be something, Im so worked up about her and I jus need to let her kno, how though? Cmon Simon think please brain, I dont ask you to do much jus think, please jus this one time, I beg! I was very desperate I didnt really know what I felt. I think it was the combination of a few frustrating things. Firstly Lee was really annoying. He kept bothering me trying to make me do that experiment. Plus I had liked her for so long and really wanted to go out and it was getting to me. It was just a rush of blood I panicked. Ok I think I hav an idea. Wat if I made married her, that way she would be mine forever and would neva forget me, that would be a tru sign of love and affection. Now where shall I get a ring from that will never come off? This is so cool jus think me and Jessica finally together. If I use really hot burnin scissors and place the handle on her finger then that wud be show my life long love for her. I was crazy, I have no explanation for this, it was a ludicrous and mad idea that was very selfish and disrespectful of me. My hands are getting well tired from holding these scissors over this blazin Bunsen, I need em to be scortchin then we will be united and she will be my life long partner, this is wat I hav been dreamin of! I think they are hot enuff now. Where is she? Cant see her? Oh few shes there over by the bin sharpening her pencil all alone. How romantic this is perfect both of us will be together without anyone botherin us. Right lets walk up to her and giv her the ring. Arghhh! My finger, its hot someone please help! Help! Those are the last words I remember before been pushed up to the headmasters office by Mrs Carlton and a load of witnesses who were all fired to tell on my nasty doings in the class of 73. Soon after this I got expelled after Jessicas parents insisted that I was not fit to be at school. That science lesson was the last I saw of her but I still see pictures of her every time I think about my eventful school days. Every time I take my little boy into school I get the smell of branded skin ringing through my nose like the pollution blown out from an industrial tower. I can still imagine flashbacks of the lilac flames in the Bunsen Burner and the pain suffered because of a young innocent boy who was in love. Marked, the Doctors said, for eternity. I never got to say sorry, but at thirteen, it was my way of asking you to marry me.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Reform Judaism In The 19th Century Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers

Reform Judaism In The 19th Century Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers Reform Judaism in the 19th Century The most extreme precursor to the Reform movement was a man by the name of Samuel Holdheim. He was born in 1806 in Kempo in the province of Posen. At a young age he studied at a yeshiva and received a Talmudic education. He began to study German and secular subjects after his marriage to a woman with a modern education. After their divorce several years later, he began studying at the University of Prague and Berlin and received a doctorate from the University of Leipzig. Following service in Frankfurt -Am-Oder he became a Landesrabbiner or chief Rabbi of Mecklenberg-Schewerin. In the year 1847 he became the rabbinate of a reform congregation in Berlin . At this point he already disapproved of most liberal Rabbis and came to be known as the most exemplar of reform Rabbis in all of Europe ( 241) The question comes to mind as to what exactly triggered this different belief in Judaism which differed significantly from previous tenents. It started during the time of the French revolution, a time when European Jews were (for the first time) recognized as citizens of the countries in which they lived in. Ghettos were being abolished, special badges were no longer required and Jews could dress the way they wanted, settle were they pleased and work the occupations they desired. Many Jews settled outside of Jewish districts, and began to live like their neighbors and speak the language of the land. They went to public schools and began to neglect Jewish Studies and forget about he Shulchan Aruch. In 1815, after Napoleon's defeat, Jews lost the rights of citizenship in many countries. Many Jews converted to Christianity in order to retain those rights. Many thoughtful Jews were concerned about this. They realized that many of these changes took place not because of a dislike for Judaism, but in order to obtain better treatment. Many rabbis believed that the way to address this was to force Jews to give up public schools and universities. This didn't work. Rabbis suggested that observance might have to be changed in order to appeal to the Jew living the modern world. They realized that every now and then old practices and new ones were introduced, resulting in a different lifestyle then 4000 or even 2000 years previously. They fathomed that these changes often made life easier for the Jew. They concluded that in order to make Judaism attractive to all Jews this change had to continue. A group of Rabbis assembled in Germany, and changes began, thus developed the start of Reform Judaism. Holdheim a reform Rabbi himself felt that the Jews living during his time period should change the laws given to them at Mt. Sinai and the halacha that the Talmud and Mishna state. Holdheim believed that the laws of the Torah and the Talmud that were in effect when the Jews had their own country and government have lost their legitimacy. Judaism now had to be in accord with both the letter and the spirit of laws of the nations they were living among. Even the laws of the Torah whose source was God had to be regarded as valid for certain times and places as he said " with the change of the circumezces and conditions of life for which God once gave those laws , the laws themselves cease to be operative, that they shall be observed no longer because they no longer can be observed". Thus , Holdheim said that the biblical and Talmudic laws concerning marriage, divorce and personal status are no longer relevant and the Jews in these cases should be ruled by the state government (Sasson 835). He concluded that laws between man and man should be left to the rule of the state they lived in but questions of prayer and religious institutions should be left to the Rabbis because prayer was the most important part of religious life. Holdheim denied the authority of the Talmudic dicta, the oral law. He says that it was written by the hand of man but was divinely inspired. His conclusion was that Jewish life should be based on spiritual and ethical guidance of the Torah. Even though

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Medieval Joseon Dynasty of Korea

The Medieval Joseon Dynasty of Korea The Joseon Dynasty (1392 to 1910), often spelled Choson or Cho-sen and pronounced Choh-sen, is the name of the last pre-modern dynastic rule in the Korean peninsula, and its politics, cultural practices and architecture reflect an explicitly Confucian flavor. The dynasty was established as a reformation of the hitherto Buddhist traditions as exemplified by the preceding Goryeo dynasty (918 to 1392). According to historical documentation, the Joseon dynastic rulers rejected what had become a corrupt regime, and reconstructed Korean society into the precursors of what is today considered one of most Confucian countries in the world. Confucianism, as practiced by the Joseon rulers, was more than simply a philosophy, it was a major course of cultural influence and an overriding social principle. Confucianism, a political philosophy based on the teachings of the 6th century BC Chinese scholar Confucius, emphasizes the status quo and social order, as a trajectory aimed towards creating a utopian society. Confucius and Social Reformation Joseon kings and their Confucian scholars based much of what they perceived as the ideal state on Confucius stories of the legendary Yao and Shun regimes. This ideal state is perhaps best represented in a scroll painted by An Gyeon, the official court painter to Sejong the Great  (ruled 1418 to 1459). The scroll is titled Mongyudowondo or Dream Journey to the Peach Blossom Land, and it tells of Prince Yi Yongs (1418 to 1453) dream of a secular paradise supported by a simple agricultural life. Son (2013) argues that the painting (and perhaps the princes dream) was likely based in part on the Chinese utopian poem written by the Jin dynasty poet Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian 365 to 427). Dynastic Royal Buildings The first ruler of the Joseon Dynasty was King Taejo, who declared Hanyang (later to be renamed Seoul and today called Old Seoul) as his capital city. The center of Hanyang was his main palace, Gyeongbok, constructed in 1395. Its original foundations were built according to feng shui, and it remained the main residence for the dynastic families for two hundred years. Gyeonbok, along with most of the buildings in the heart of Seoul, was burned down after the Japanese invasion of 1592. Of all the palaces, Changdeok Palace was the least damaged and so was rebuilt shortly after the war ended and then used as the main residential palace for Joseon leaders. In 1865, King Gojong had the entire palace complex rebuilt and established residence and the royal court there in 1868. All of these buildings were damaged when the Japanese invaded in 1910, ending the Joseon Dynasty. Between 1990 and 2009, the Gyeongbok Palace complex was restored and is today open to the public. Funeral Rites of Joseon Dynasty Of the many reformations of the Joseons, one of the highest priority was that of the funeral ceremony. This particular reformation had considerable impacts on 20th-century archaeological investigations of Joseon society. The process resulted in the preservation of a wide variety of clothing, textiles, and papers from the 15th through 19th centuries, not to mention mummified human remains. Funeral rites during the Joseon Dynasty, as described in the Garye books such as the Gukjo-ore-ui, strictly prescribed the construction of tombs for the members of the elite ruling class of Joseon society, beginning in the late 15th century AD. As described by the neo-Confucian Song Dynasty scholar Chu Hsi (1120-1200), first a burial pit was excavated and a mixture of water, lime, sand, and soil were spread on the bottom and the lateral walls. The lime mixture was allowed to harden to a near-concrete consistency. The body of the deceased was placed in at least one and often two wooden coffins, and the entire burial covered with another layer of the lime mixture, also allowed to harden. Finally, an earthen mound was built over the top. This process, known to archaeologists as lime-soil-mixture-barrier (LSMB), creates a concrete-like jacket that preserved virtually intact coffins, grave goods, and human remains, including over a thousand pieces of very well preserved clothing for the entire 500 year period of their use Joseon Astronomy Some recent research on Joseon society has been focused on the astronomical capabilities of the royal court. Astronomy was a borrowed technology, adopted and adapted by the Joseon rulers from a series of different cultures; and the results of these investigations are of interest to the history of science and technology. Joseon astronomical records, studies of sundial construction, and the meaning and mechanics of a  clepsydra made by Jang Yeong-sil in 1438 have all received investigations by archaeoastronomers in the last couple of years. Sources Choi J-D. 2010.  The palace, the city and the past: controversies surrounding the rebuilding of the Gyeongbok Palace in Seoul, 1990–2010.  Planning Perspectives  25(2):193-213.Kim SH, Lee YS, and Lee MS. 2011.  A Study on the Operation Mechanism of Ongnu, the Astronomical Clock in Sejong Era.  Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences  28(1):79-91.Lee E-J, Oh C, Yim S, Park J, Kim Y-S, Shin M, Lee S, and Shin D. 2013.  Collaboration of Archaeologists, Historians and Bioarchaeologists During Removal of Clothing from Korean Mummy of Joseon Dynasty.  International Journal of Historical Archaeology 17(1):94-118.Lee E-J, Shin D, Yang HY, Spigelman M, and Yim S. 2009.  Eung Taes tomb: a Joseon ancestor and the letters of those that loved him.  Antiquity  83(319):145-156.Lee K-W. 2012.  Analysis of Korean astronomical records with Chinese equatorial coordinates.  Astronomische Nachrichten  333(7):648-659.Lee K-W, Ahn YS, and Mihn B-H. 2012.  Verification o f the calendar days of the Joseon Dynasty.  Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society  45:85-91. Lee K-W, Ahn Y-S, and Yang H-J. 2011.  Study on the system of night hours for decoding Korean astronomical records of 1625–1787.  Advances in Space Research  48(3):592-600.Lee K-W, Yang H-J, and Park M-G. 2009.  Orbital elements of comet C/1490 Y1 and the Quadrantid shower.  Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  400:1389-1393.Lee YS, and Kim SH. 2011.  A Study for the Restoration of the Sundials in King Sejong Era.  Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences  28(2):143-153.Park HY. 2010.  HERITAGE TOURISM: Emotional Journeys into Nationhood.  Annals of Tourism Research  37(1):116-135.Shin DH, Oh CS, Lee SJ, Chai JY, Kim J, Lee SD, Park JB, Choi I-h, Lee HJ, and Seo M. 2011.  Paleo-parasitological study on the soils collected from archaeological sites in old district of Seoul City.  Journal of Archaeological Science  38(12):3555-3559.Shin DH, Oh CS, Shin YM, Cho CW, Ki HC, and Seo M. 2013  The pattern of ancient parasite egg contaminati on in the private residence, alley, ditch and streambed soils of Old Seoul City, the Capital of Joseon Dynasty.  International Journal of Paleopathology  3(3):208-213. Son H. 2013.  Images of the future in South Korea.  Futures  52:1-11.